Republic of Italy Timeline

Republic of Italy Timeline

Italy is a sovereign state in Europe, situated in the heart of the mediterranean sea. Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2. Shares open land borders with France, Austria, Switzerland, San Marino, Vatican City and Slovenia.

Italy was certainly influenced by many powerful cultures and political forces over time, including the Byzantines, Etruscans and Greeks, but it was the world-changing impact of both the Roman civilization and the Italian Renaissance that contributed most-significantly to its status in the modern world.

Italy has the third largest nominal GDP in the Eurozone and the eighth largest in the world.  As an advanced economy, the country has the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth and it is ranked third for its central bank gold reserve. Italy has a very high level of human development and it stands among the top countries for life expectancy.

Republic of Italy Timeline

1861
The Kingdom of Italy established excluding Rome, Venice, San Marino; King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia became King of Italy
1866
Italy obtained Venice from Austria
1870
Italian forces occupied Rome
1871
Rome named the capital of Italy
1915
Italy joined World War I on side of Allies
1918
Allies won World War I
1919
Gains Trentino, South Tyrol, and Trieste under peace treaties.
1922
Fascists took control of Rome; Benito Mussolini named Prime Minister
1925
benito mussolini Italian dictatorMussolini became Dictator of Italy
1929
Lateran Treaty creates the state of Vatican City.
1935
Italy invades Ethiopia.
1936
Mussolini formed anti-Communist Axis with Germany
1939
Albania annexed.
1940
Italy entered World War II as an ally of Germany
1941
Italy declares war on USSR.
1943
Italy surrendered to Allied forces; Mussolini forced to resign; Italy declared war on Germany
1944
Allied Armies liberated Rome
1945
Mussolini, who had been rescued from prison by Germans, is captured and executed by Italian partisans.
1946
Italians voted to end monarchy and established a republic
1947
Italy cedes land and territories under the peace treaty.
1951
Italy joins European Coal and Steel Community.
1952
Italy became a founding member of the European Economic Community
1955
Italy joined United Nations
1957
Founder member of European Economic Community.
1960
Olympic Games held in Rome

Olympic Games held in Rome

1966
Flood waters from Arno River in Florence damaged many works of art
1982
Italian Football team won World Cup in Spain
1984
Roman Catholicism lost status as the state religion of Italy
1986
338 Mafia members convicted of criminal activities
1990
World Cup held in Italy
1998
Italy joined the  European Union
1999
Italy adopted Euro as its currency
2002
Euro replaces the lira

Euro replaces the lira

2003
Multi-billion euros fraud at Parmalat food-manufacturing company exposed
2009
Earthquake in Abruzzo region killed over 300
2011
Italian women held nationwide anti-Berlusconi demonstrations
2014
The government takes full control of the troubled ILVA steel plant, based in Taranto in southern Italy.
2017
Veneto and Lombardy, two wealthy northern regions, vote overwhelmingly in favour of greater autonomy in non-binding referendums.
2018
Elections produce a hung parliament and ongoing efforts to form a government.

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Republic of Italy Timeline
Republic of Italy Timeline

15 Fascinating Kaliningrad Facts

Fascinating Facts About Kaliningrad

Kaliningrad is the administrative centre of Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave between Poland and Lithuania on the Baltic Sea.

  1. Kaliningrad was formally known as Königsberg (1254 to 1945) and was the capital city of the German province of East Prussia.

  2. The Population of Kaliningrad is mostly Russian. 87.4% Russian, 3.8% Belarusian and 4% Ukrainian, 0.7% Armenian and 0.5% Tatar.

  3. Kaliningrad is a seaport city and Russian exclave situated between Poland and Lithuania on the Baltic Sea.

  4. The most famous person to be born in Königsberg was a German Philosopher Immanuel Kant. When Königsberg became Russian for the first time in the 18th century, Kant took an oath to the Russian Empress.

  5. Kaliningrad has about 185 rainy days a year.

  6. Russia had two Kaliningrad’s from 1946 til 1996, the other Kaliningrad was near Moscow and was later renamed to Korolyov.

  7. Kaliningrad region is famous for its production of amber. possesses over 90% of the world’s amber.

  8. Kaliningrad got its name in 1946 in honour of famous Soviet communistic activist Mikhail Kalinin. The Second part of name “grad” means “city”.

  9. Most of Königsberg was destroyed during World War II and was rebuilt in the style of a traditional Soviet city, however, some of the German architecture remains.

  10. Kaliningrad is headquarters of the Russian Baltic Fleet.

  11. Kaliningrad is split into 3 districts: Leningradsky (Ленинградский), Moskovsky (Московский) and Tsentralny (Центральный).

  12. Kaliningrad is closer to Berlin (527km) and Prague (659km) than it is to Moscow (1289km) and St. Petersburg (797km).

  13. The Kaliningrad region covers an area of 15,000 square kilometres.

  14. The first ever book printed in Lithuanian language, the Catechism, It was printed on 8 January 1547 by Hans Weinreich in Königsberg. only 200 copies were printed and only two copies survived. one is stored in the Nicolaus Copernicus University Library in Toruń, Poland, and the other is in the Vilnius University Library in Lithuania.

  15. Kaliningrad’s Curonian Spit is a UNESCO World Heritage Site: inscription since 2000.

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Kaliningrad Facts
Kaliningrad Facts

50 Fun and Interesting Facts About England

Facts Engalnd, United Kingdom

FUN & INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT ENGLAND

  1. England’s Highest Point is the Scafell Pike, standing at 3210 ft.

  2. The Lowest Point in England is the Fens, 15 feet below sea level.

  3. The Longest River in England is the Thames, 346 km However the Severn is Official Britain’s longest river.

  4. The Largest lake in England is Windermere, 14.7 sq km.

  5. England borders with Scotland and Wales, however, France is only 35 km away, England and France are linked by a tunnel under the English Channel.

  6. No Government or Parliament just for England, since 1707, when Great Britain was established.

  7. England national football team won the World Cup In 1966.

  8. Cheddar Cheese comes from England.

  9. England is split into 48 ceremonial counties.

  10. England is the most populated and biggest country in the United Kingdom.

  11. England is made up of many small islands, such as the Isle of Wight, the Isles of Scilly and Hayling Island.

  12. England Hosted Three Summer Olympic Games in 1908, 1948 and most recently 2012.

  13. The Capital City of England is London, England’s second capital in Birmingham followed by Manchester.

  14. Time Berners-Lee an English Computer Scientist is credited with inventing the Wolrd Wide Web, He donated the WWW to everyone to use for free.

  15. Passenger railways were started in England.

  16. England Inventions: the first computer, HTML, The seat belt, the hovercraft, the Industrial Spinning Machine and the World Wide Web, Among other things.

  17. The birthplace of the Industrial Revolution began in England.

  18. The Bank of England started in 1694.

  19. The official home of the British Monarch is Buckingham Palace in London, England.

  20. England has produced some of the most influential and important bands and pop artists, including The Beatles, The Rolling Stones, Led Zeppelin, Queen, David Bowie, Pink Floyd and The Who.

  21. Norwich is the only city in England to have been named a “City of Literature” by UNESCO.

  22. The Queen is not allowed to set foot in the House of Commons.

  23. England was part of the shortest war in history. They fought Zanzibar in 1896 and Zanzibar surrendered after just 38 minutes.

  24. The highest temperature ever recorded in England was 38.5°C, in Brogdale, Kent, on 10 August 2003.

  25. English people consume more tea per capita than anybody else in the world.

  26. French was the official language of England for about 300 years, from 1066 till 1362.

  27. British police do not carry guns except in emergencies.

  28. Nowhere in the UK is more than 70 miles.

  29. Famous English Scientists including Stephen Hawking, Sir Isaac Newton, Charles Darwin, and Jane Goodall among many others.

  30. England Has Many Weird Village Traditions, such as cheese rolling.

  31. It Is A Criminal Offense to Stick A Postage Stamp To An Envelope Upside Down

  32. The only city in England to be named as a World Heritage City by UNESCO is Bath.

  33. The Queen of England, Elizabeth II, is head of state and does not govern the country.

  34. The London Eye is the tallest observation wheel in the world.

  35. The English and British Currency is called the Pounds Sterling ‘£’.

  36. The name “England” is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means “land of the Angles“.

  37. The Barbary Lion is a national animal of England.

  38. The red rose is widely recognised as the national flower of England.

  39. There is a limit of 12 minutes of commercials, per hour of television, in England.

  40. England has more Chickens than people.

  41. In England, it’s legal to consume alcohol on private premises from the age of 5.

  42. The Queen owns all unmarked swans in open water and she is the “officially appointed ‘Swan Keeper’ of England.”, this means harming a swan can land you in prison.

  43. London is the world’s largest financial centre.

  44. The world’s oldest public zoo was opened in London in 1828.

  45. The first public theatre built in England was called The Theatre.

  46. The Official Language of England is English.

  47. England’s National Day is St George’s Day, April 23rd.

  48. England is the second largest economy in Europe.

  49. The first building to overtake the Great Pyramid of Giza was the Lincoln Cathedral in 1280. It held the title of the highest construction ever built until 1884.

  50. London’s Heathrow Airport is the busiest airport in the United Kingdom and the third busiest airport in the world.

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Madrid Historical Timeline

Madrid timeline

Madrid was known as Madjerît in the 10th century by the Moors and was later conquered by King of Leon, Ramiro I, however this was only for a brief time, as the Moors took the city back, the city was controlled by the Moors until 1083, when King Alfonso VI took undisputed possession of the city.

In 1561, King Felipe II proclaimed the city as the capital city of Spain, giving a permanent and strong centre to control the continuous political movements through the Kingdom.

After the death of Francom Spain made the transition to a constitutional monarchy and King Juan Carlos I, made his home in Madrid and now the Spanish capital of Madrid is the Major centre for culture, Industry and Governance.

Chronicle Events & Historical Timeline

852
Moors establish village of Mayrít
932
Ramiro II, Christian King temporarily occupies Mayrít
1109
Moors Sieged Mayrít but Failed
1185
Castille Forces Captured Mayrít
1202
Madrid was granted Town Status.
1212
Soldiers from Madrid assist in the battle of Las Navas de Tolosa
1217
Saint Francisco of Assis founds Monastery of San Francisco
1218
Saint Domingo de Guzmán founds Monastery of Santo Domingo el Real
1248
Fernando III confirms division between Segovia and Madrid
1433
Royal Cortes held in Madrid
1434
Town suffers nine weeks of storms and floods
1435
Royal Cortes to be held only in Madrid
1463
Weekly market established and also Fairs of San Miguel and San Mateo
1474
Supporters of Isabel besiege the city
1478
Initiation of Spanish Inquisition
1479
Pedro Zapata founds Monastery de Rejas
1492
3rd Purge of Jews and destruction of their Quarter
1498
Pigs are forbidden to roam freely in the streets
1500
Printing press in operation
1503
Foundation of Convento de San Jerómino el Real
1505
San Jerónimo el Real built.
1518
Construction began of Church of Beato Isidoro
1520
Rebellion by citizens of Madrid against Carlos I
1520
Madrid surrenders after Battle of Villalar
1523
Dominicans established in Virgen de Atocha
1525
Francis I of France imprisoned in Torre de Los Lujanes
1526
Treaty of Madrid signed.
1528
Isabel authorized construction of Church of San Isidoro
1537
Casa de Cisneros built.
1547
Founded Convento Agustino de San Felipe Nery y el de la Trinidad Descalza
1547
Writer Miquel de Cervantes Saavedra (1547-1616)
1559
Convent of Las Descalzas Reales founded.
1561
Madrid Population: 20,000.
1561
Royal Court moved to Madrid and established as capital of Spain
1562
Felipe II acquired land to create Casa de Campo
1562
Writer Félix Lope de Vega (1562-1635)
1563
Work commences on El Escorial
1580
Writer Francisco de Quevedo y Villegas (1580-1645)
1584
Bridge of Segovia built.
1590
Construction of Casas de la Panadería
1592
Construction of Convento de Los Agustinos Recoletos
1599
Construction of the first section of the Puerto de Alcalá
1599
Painter Diego de Velázquez (1599-1660)
1601
Court of Philip III moves from Madrid to Valladolid.
1600
Royal Court moved to Valladolid
1600
Dramatist Pedro Calderón de la Barca (1600-1681)
1605
Cervantes’ novel Don Quixote published.
1606
Court of Philip III returns to Madrid.
1606
Construction of Convento de Santa Bárbara
1606
Royal Court moved back to Madrid
1613
Palace of the Councils built.
1616
Felipe III orders construction of Plaza Mayor
1616
Real Monasterio de la Encarnación inaugurated.
1618
Felipe III creates Parque del Retiro
1622
Construction of Convento de la Encarnación
1632
Real Sitio del Buen Retiro Palace completed
1633
Church of San Antonio de los Alemanes built.
1636
Royal Alcazar built.
1637
Buen Retiro Palace built
1643
Palacio de Santa Cruz built
1644
Funeral of Isabel de Borbón.
1661
Gazeta de Madrid begins publication.
1664
San Isidro Church built.
1700
Construction of Palacio de Goyaneche
1701
Bourbon Felipe V arrives in Madrid to take throne
1706
City occupied by Portuguese.
1713
Real Academia Española founded.
1714
Real Biblioteca del Palacio formed.
1717
Palacio de Uceda renamed Palacio de Consejos
1719
Puente de Toledo rebuilt
1720
Construction of Cuartel del Conde-Duque
1722
Construction of Hospicio de San Fernando (now Municipal Museum)
1734
Royal Alcázar destroyed by fire
1738
Construction commenced of Royal Palace (1738-1764)
1737
Real Colegio de Profesores Boticarios established.
1738
Real Academia de la Historia founded.
1743
Teatro de la Cruz renovated.
1746
Painter Francisco de Goya (1746-1828)
1750
Construction of Convento de las Salasas Reales
1751
Compañía Guipuzcoana de Caracas headquartered in Madrid.
1752
Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando founded
1755
Real Jardín Botánico founded.
1761
Construction of Basilica of San Francisco el Grande
1763
Spanish National Lottery established
1764
Palace Real completed
1766
Construction of Casa de Correos
1766
Esquilache Riots.
1767
Jesuits expelled from their monasteries and Spain
1769
Construction of Casa Real de la Aduana (now Ministry of Hacienda)
1769
Enlargement of Puerto de Alcalá
1775
Construction of Salón del Prado
1776
Reconstruction of Hospital General (now Museum of Reina Sofia)
1777
Construction of Palacio de Benavente (now Ministry of Defense)
1781
Creation of Royal Botanical Gardens
1784
San Francisco el Grande Basilica built.
1785
Construction of Palacio del Prado (1785-1854 – now Prado Museum)
1787
1st Official Census – 156.672 inhabitants in Madrid
1790
Reconstruction of Plaza Mayor after fire
1798
Construction of San Antonio de la Florida
1808
French Army of Napoleon occupies Madrid and street riots follow
1812
English General Wellington frees city from French occupiers
1817
Playwright José Zorrilla y Mora (1817-1893)
1818
Official opening of Prado Museum
1820
General Riego leads Liberal coup
1832
Public gas system installed in centre of City
1834
City roads paved and cleaning services established
1835
Church property seized by State
1840
General Espartero leads Radical coup
1843
General Narvaez leads Conservative coup
1843
Writer Benito Pérez Galdós (1843-1920)
1844
Railway Station of Aranjuez constructed
1850
Opening of Cortes building and Teatro Real
1851
Construction of Isabel II Canal for city water supply
1855
Construction commenced of railway line to Paris (1855-1864)
1857
Reconstruction of Plaza de la Puerto del Sol
1866
Construction of Biblioteca Nacional
1868
General Prim with a coup ends reign of Isabel II
1868
The Peseta is recognized as official currency of Spain
1868
Gardens of Parque del Retiro open to public
1873
The 1st Spanish Republic
1875
Alfonso XII restores monarchy
1876
New Spanish Constitution
1881
Electric street lighting installed
1884
Construction of Banco de España (1884-1891)
1897 
Prime Minister Cánovas del Castillo assassinated
1899
Poet and playwright Federico Garciá Lorca (1899-1936)
1900
Construction of railway system to the east and south of Spain (1900-1914)
1902
Real Madrid FC founded
1904
Approval of creation of Gran Via
1906
Hotel Ritz opens
1907
Car number plates registration introduced
1909
Cibeles Palace built.
1910
Demolition to create the Gran Via commenced
1912
Hotel Palace opens.
1916
Market of San Miguel constructed.
1916
Novelist Camilo José Cela (1916-
1920
Madrid Population: 750,896
1921
Metro system opens
1923
Dictatorship of Primo de Rivera established
1923
Teatro Monumental
1929
Construction of Madrid University Campus
1931
2nd Spanish Republic
1931
Casa de Campo opened to the public
1934
Construction of viaduct over Calle Segovia
1936
Siege of Madrid begins
1936
Spanish Civil War commences
1939
General Franco occupies Madrid and ends Civil War
1939
Junta for reconstruction of Madrid established
1941
Museum of the Americas founded
1944
Carabanchel Prison built.
1947
Creation of system of public transport within the city
1946
Estadio Santiago Bernabéu opens.
1950
Lope de Vega Theater opens.
1951
Museum of Lázaro Galdiano opens.
1956
Real Madrid wins first European Cup
1960
Madrid Population: 2,259,931
1965
Student demonstrations close Madrid University
1966
Real Madrid wins its 6th European Cup
1967
City flag design adopted.
1970
Madrid Population: 3,146,071
1971
Technical University of Madrid formed.
1972
Temple of Debod installed.
1972
Zoo Aquarium built.
1973
Carrero Blanco assassinated
1974
Line 7 (Madrid Metro) begins operating.
1975
General Franco dies and power passes to the King
1976
El Pais newspaper is published
1977
UCD Party wins democratic elections
1978
Centro Dramático Nacional created.
1979
Democratic election of Municipal representatives
1979
Enrique Tierno Galván elected President of Municipality of Madrid (1979-1986)
1980
Line 9 (Madrid Metro) begins operating.
1981
Right-wing coup fails
1982
PSOE Party wins national elections
1983
Almudena Cathedral consecrated.
1984
Queen Sofía Chamber Orchestra formed.
1987
Community of Madrid Orchestra founded.
1988
National Auditorium of Music inaugurated.
1989
El Mundo begins publication
1991
City hosts Israeli–Palestinian peace conference.
1991
Madrid Population: 2,984,576.
1992
Madrid selected as Capital of European Culture for that year
1993
Opening of Palace of Congresses of Campo de las Naciones
1995
Completion of last Metro line, Line 6
1996
Conservative Party wins national elections
1996
Gate of Europe and Islamic Cultural Center of Madrid built
1998
Madrid Metro Line 8 and Line 11 Begin Operating Line 8
2000
Partido Popular win national elections
2000
Real Madrid makes soccer history by winning 8th European Cup
2001
City named World Book Capital by UNESCO.
2002
Madrid Arena opens
2003
Manzanares Park inaugurated
2003
Line 12 (Madrid Metro) begins operating.
2004
Museo del Traje established
2005
Madrid to Toledo high-speed rail line begins operating.
2005
Forest of Remembrance dedicated.
2005
Madrid Ballet established.
2006
Teatro Valle-Inclán opens.
2007
Metro Ligero begins operating
2008
Madrid to Barcelona high-speed rail line begins operating.
2008
CaixaForum Madrid opens.
2009
Population reached 3,264,497.
2011
Mass un-employed known as “Indignados” demonstrate
2012
More street demonstrations due to government financial measures
2013
4th bid for the Summer Olympic Games fails.
2015
Parque Felipe VI inaugurated

 

Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery

BIRMINGHAM MUSEUM AND ART GALLERY

Birmingham Museum and artwork Gallery is a museum and artwork gallery in Birmingham, England. It has a collection of international significance overlaying satisfactory art, ceramics, metalwork, jeweler, natural history, archaeology, ethnography, nearby records and business history.

The museum/gallery is run with the aid of Birmingham Museums believe, the biggest independent museums believe within the united kingdom, which also runs 8 different museums around the metropolis.

In 1829, the Birmingham Society of Artists created a non-public exhibition building in New street.

Currently one of Europe’s leading current art galleries, Ikon is elegant, progressive and recognized for its individuality. The Ikon well-known shows the great worldwide and British art in a changing program of exhibitions and occasions

Home to the largest series of pre-Raphaelite art work in the international, as well as collections of silver, sculpture, ceramics and ancient and social records galleries. The gas corridor Gallery houses a constantly converting program of exhibitions.

Museum and artwork Gallery is free, but some primary exhibitions in the fuel hall incur an front charge.

Collection size: 500,000 objects

Architectural styles: Victorian architecture & Edwardian architecture

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Telephone: 0121 348 8032

Official website: birminghammuseums.org.uk

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[su_box title=”Opening Hours” box_color=”#000000″ radius=”0″]

Monday 10:00 am–5:00 pm
Tuesday 10:00 am–5:00 pm
Wednesday 10:00 am–5:00 pm
Thursday 10:00 am–5:00 pm
Friday 10:30 am–5:00 pm
Saturday 10:00 am–5:00 pm
Sunday 10:00 am–5:00 pm

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Location

Address: Chamberlain Square, Birmingham B3 3DH