34 Interesting Russian Civil War Facts

Russian Civil War Facts

The Russian Civil War was a multi-party civil war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the two Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia’s political future.

Russian Civil War Facts

  • The Russian Civil War was a civil war fought from November 1917 until October 1922 between several groups in Russia.
  • The term Russian civil war generally refers to the confrontation between the proponents of restoring the deposed Ancien Régime (“Whites”) and those who defended the new socialist regime that emerged from the October Revolution (“Reds”).
  • The signing of the peace treaty between Vladimir Lenin’s (1870-1924) Russia and Wilhelm II, German Emperor’s (1859-1941) Germany in Brest-Litovsk on 3 March 1918 may also be seen as the starting point of the civil war.
  • The main fighting was between the Red Army and the White Army. The Red Army was an army of communists. The White Army opposed the communists.
  • The Red Army won this war because their army was better-organized and they held the best territory. After this war, the communists established the Soviet Union in 1922.
  • The Bolsheviks organised a highly effective propaganda campaign in the areas they controlled
  • The Bolsheviks portrayed themselves as a patriotic party who would defend Russia from imperialists. This was particularly effective since the Whites had support from Britain, France and the USA.
  • About 8 million people lost their lives during the Russian Civil War. Out of them, about one million were soldiers of the Red Army.
  • The anti-communists and their White Army killed at least 50,000 communists.
  • Many millions of people also died due to famine, starvation, and epidemics. In white-occupied areas such as Ukraine and southern Russia, many Jews were killed.
  • The value of Russia’s currency (ruble) fell. In 1914, with 2 rubles one could buy a US dollar. In 1920, one had to give 1,200 rubles to buy one US dollar.
  • The Russian Civil War had a very bad result for agriculture also. The farm produced only 37 % of the normal production. The number of horses fell from 35 million (in 1916) to 24 million (in 1920). The number of cattle also became less, from 58 million to 37 million.
  • The Bolsheviks considered themselves the leaders of the revolutionary working class of Russia.
  • Following the overthrow of the Provisional Government, Lenin’s new state was called the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic.
  • The former Russian royal family was held under house arrest in Yekaterinburg. On the night of 16-17 July 1918, the former Tsar, his wife, their five children, and others who had accompanied them in their imprisonment were executed.
  • Famous communist Leon Trotsky served as military commander of the Bolsheviks during the war.
Russian Civil War Facts
Trotsky decided at the beginning of 1918 it was time to reorganize the officer corps of the Red Army.

 

  • Rival militant socialists and non-ideological Green armies fought against both the Bolsheviks and the White Army.
  • British, French, and American units were all sent to various Russian ports to support White forces.
  • Japan attempted to land their own troops in the east, without permission, in Russia during the first year of the Russian Civil War, with the aim of helping the White forces in the short term but ultimately desiring to gain Russian territory for Japan overall.
  • The Bolsheviks took advantage of the civil war to also attack peasants who opposed the government’s confiscation of the lands they farmed.
  • Historians debate when the civil war actually began; some select a date in the summer of 1918, and others suggest that the October Revolution of 1917 marked the war’s true beginning.
  • On July 16, 1918, the Romanovs were executed by the Bolsheviks.
  • During this first period, the Bolsheviks took control of Central Asia out of the hands of the Provisional Government and White Army, setting up a base for the Communist Party in the Steppe and Turkestan, where nearly two million Russian settlers were located.
  • In 1920 there was still an organized White force in Crimea, under Gen. Pyotr N. Wrangel, who struck northward at the Red Army and, for a time, occupied part of Ukraine and Kuban. The Red Army eventually battered Wrangel’s forces, whose rearguards held out long enough to ensure the evacuation of 150,000 soldiers and civilians by sea from Crimea. This ended the Russian Civil War in November 1920.
  • Ultimately, the Whites lost the war due to a lack of coordination between their various forces.
  • The Archangel Expedition, also known as the Polar Bear Expedition, was the posting of 5,000 US troops in the Russian city of Archangel (Arkhangelsk) to aid the anti-Bolsheviks during the civil war.

 

Russian Civil War Facts
Trotsky decided at the beginning of 1918 it was time to reorganize the officer corps of the Red Army.

 

  • Lesser battles continued on the periphery for two more years, and minor skirmishes with the remnants of the White forces in the Far East continued well into 1923.
  • One consequence of the Russian Civil War was that many non-Russian peoples were subjected to Russian Communist rule, including the Tartars, Ukrainians, and citizens of Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Armenia.
  • In a sense, the war ended in 1923 due to the Bolsheviks assumed control of the new Soviet Union. Armed resistance in Central Asia was not completely crushed until 1934.
  • Lenin went on to fix Russia’s economy by implementing the New Economic Policy, allowing farmers to keep some of their surplus crops allowing for some of them to get wealthy. This was a tactic to prevent further revolts.
  • The rest of the former Russian Empire was consolidated into the Soviet Union.
  • Trotsky and to a certain extent Lenin, believed that a Communist Germany was necessary for the survival of the U.S.S.R while Stalin believed that Communism wasn’t strong enough in the U.S.S.R in order to be exported. Stalin, in the end, came out victorious in the struggle for power and exiled Trotsky in 1929. Trotsky was later assassinated in 1940. Stalin tightened his grip on the Soviet Union by using purges, assassinations and a secret police named the N.K.V.D.
  • The Russian Revolution paved the way for the rise of communism as an influential political belief system around the world.
  • The Russian Revolution set the stage for the rise of the Soviet Union as a world power that would go head-to-head with the United States during the Cold War.
Russian Civil War Facts
Russian Civil War Facts

33 Informative Russo-Japanese War Facts

Russo-Japanese War Facts

The Russo-Japanese War was a military conflict fought between the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan from 1904 to 1905. Much of the fighting took place in what is now northeastern China.

  • The Russo-Japanese War began on February 8, 1904, when japan staged a surprise attack on the Russian navy at Port Arthur in China.
  • Much of the fighting took place in what is now northeastern China. The Russo-Japanese War was also a naval conflict, with ships exchanging fire in the waters surrounding the Korean peninsula.
  • The Russo-Japanese War was the result of an attempt by Russia to obtain two Asian ports for use in Pacific trade and of Japan’s opposition to greater Russian control in the area.
  • In 1904, when the Russo-Japanese War began, Russia was one of the largest territorial powers in the world.
  • Scholars have suggested that the Russo-Japanese War set the stage for World War I and, ultimately, World War II, as some of the central issues in the first conflict were at the core of the fighting during the latter two.
  • The last major battle at Tsushima destroyed the Russian navy.
  • During the war, Russia attempted to dissuade the Japanese from approaching their forces by the Yalu River by spreading the false rumour that they had the technology to set the river entirely on fire.
  • Russo-Japanese War is also known as the World War Zero.
  • It is estimated that 20,000 Chinese civilians were killed during the course of the war, largely at the hands of Russian troops, who looted several villages as they passed through Manchuria.
  • The Russo-Japanese War was rare in that the Russians admitted defeat, yet on the day the Tsar’s ministers asked for peace, they still fielded an army in Manchuria three times the size of the entire Japanese military.
  • Treaty of Portsmouth, September 5, 1905, formally ended the Russo-Japanese. Signed at Portsmouth, Maine, USA. Theodore Roosevelt earned the Nobel Peace Prize for negotiating the treaty.
  • Russia’s sole form of ground transportation for men and material to move from the West to the Pacific Ocean was the single-track Trans-Siberian Railway.
  • The Russo-Japanese War was fought under Tzar Nichols II, the last tzar ever to rule Russia.
  • The Russian defeat was one of the reasons for the Russian army’s great improvement after 1904 and this improvement helped start the European arms-race that was a cause of World War I. The war also contributed to the Russian Revolution and Civil War in 1917. Facts About the Russian Civil War.
    russian riflemen - Russo-Japanese War Facts
    russian riflemen – Russo-Japanese War Facts
  • The Russo-Japanese War held great international significance, as it was the first all-out war of the modern era in which a non-European power defeated one of Europe’s great powers.
  • It’s believed that both sides sustained casualties amounting to more than 150,000 combined, and that some 20,000 Chinese civilians were killed as well.
  • Despite its gold reserves of 106.3 million pounds, Russia’s pre-war financial situation was not enviable. The country had large budget deficits year after year, and was largely dependent on borrowed money.
  • Russia’s war effort was funded primarily by France, in a series of loans totalling 800 million francs.
  • Japan’s total war expenditure was 2,150 million yen, of which 38%, or 820 million yen, was raised overseas.
Japanese Painting - Russo-Japanese War Facts
Japanese Painting – Russo-Japanese War Facts
  • Russia had lost two of its three fleets. Only its Black Sea Fleet remained, and this was the result of an earlier treaty that had prevented the fleet from leaving the Black Sea. Japan became the sixth-most powerful naval force by combined tonnage, while the Russian Navy declined to one barely stronger than that of Austria–Hungary.
  • To the Western powers, Japan’s victory demonstrated the emergence of a new Asian regional power. With the Russian defeat, some scholars have argued that the war had set in motion a change in the global world order with the emergence of Japan as not only a regional power, but rather, the main Asian power.
  • The advanced weaponry led to massive casualty counts. Neither Japan nor Russia had prepared for the number of deaths that would occur in this new kind of warfare, or had the resources to compensate for these losses. This also left its impression on society at large, with the emergence of transnational and non-governmental organizations, like the Red Cross, becoming prominent after the war.
  • Russia wanted a warm-water Pacific Ocean port for trade and her navy.
  • Japan wanted to expand its empire into Korea and China.
  • Though there had been popular support for the war among the Russian public following the Japanese attack at Port Arthur in 1904, that popular support soon turned to discontent after suffering multiple defeats at the hands of the Japanese forces.
  • The number of Japanese Army dead in combat or died of wounds is put at around 59,000 with around 27,000 additional casualties from disease, and between 6,000 and 12,000 wounded.
  • During the war, Russia laid a total of 4,275 naval mines. Russia’s mines sank more Japanese warships than any other weapon used by the Russian navy.
  • Estimates of Russian Army dead range from around 34,000 to around 53,000 men with a further 9,000–19,000 dying of disease and around 75,000 captured. The total number of dead for both sides is generally stated as around 130,000 to 170,000.
  • Russia also signed over its 25-year leasehold rights to Port Arthur, including the naval base and the peninsula around it, and ceded the southern half of Sakhalin Island to Japan. Sakhalin would be taken back by the Soviet Union following the defeat of the Japanese in World War II.
  • Japan would take over Korea five years later in 1910. The Japanese got Port Arthur and the Russian railway in China. Japan would continue to grow its empire in Asia until World War II.
  • mediator Teddy Roosevelt sided with Russia in a refusal to pay any reparations to Japan, resulting in several days of anti-American rioting in Tokyo.
  • The victory of Japan over Russia in the Russo-Japanese War resulted in a birth of nationalistic feeling among nations like India, who were subject to other European imperialist powers.
  • Due to their dismal performance in gaining military intelligence during the War, the Russian government entirely reorganized their intelligence-gathering branch immediately after the war.
Russo-Japanese War Facts
Russo-Japanese War Facts

Coat of arms of the Sakha Republic

Coat of arms of the Sakha Republic

The coat of arms of the Sakha Republic, in the Russian Federation, is an official symbol of the Sakha Republic, alongside the flag and the national anthem of the Sakha Republic. This coat of arms has been used officially since 26 December 1992.

The coat of arms consists of a circle, in the centre of which is a red silhouette of a rider, holding a banner, mounted upon a six-legged horse, based on the prehistoric petroglyphs of the “Shishkin pisanitsa”, against a white sun background.

Coat of arms of the Sakha Republic
Coat of arms of the Sakha Republic

 

Coat of arms of the Sakha Republic
Coat of arms of the Sakha Republic

Flag of Yakutsk

Flag of Yakutsk

The flag of the Yakutsk in the Russian Federation, is one of the official symbols of the city. The flag of Yakutsk adopted 20, June, 1996.

The Flag consists of Five Horizontal Stripes: Blue, Red, White, Red, Green. There is a red rhombus in the centre of white stripe. Ancient wood tower of XVII century, in white colour, placed in the rhombus.

Each of the colours on the Flag stands for:

  • White Colour stands for the north.
  • Blue Colour Stands for the Sky.
  • Green Colour Stands for the Summer and Glass.
  • Red Colour Stands for life, Warmth and Gladness.
  • The Rhombus stands for the Native Land.
Yakutsk City Flag
Yakutsk City Flag
Flag of Yakutsk
Flag of Yakutsk

10 Interesting Moscow Kremlin Facts

Facts About The Kremlin:

  1. The name “Kremlin” means “fortress inside a city”, it was founded by Prince Yury Dolgoruky in the 1100s.

  2. The Kremlin encompasses an area of 90 acres of land.

  3. Palaces of the Kremlin include Great Kremlin Palace, Terem Palace, Poteshny Palace, and State Kremlin Palace.

  4. The Kremlin’s largest square is Ivanovskaya Square.

  5. The Kremlin is the largest fortress of its kind in Europe.

  6. The Soviet government moved from Petrograd to Moscow on 12 March 1918. Vladimir Lenin selected the Kremlin Senate as his residence.

  7. The Moscow Kremlin now serves as the official residence of the President of the Russian Federation and as a museum.

  8. Together with the Red Square, the Kremlin was elected as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1990.

  9. There are 20 Kremlin towers and all have names apart from two. These are called ‘the first unnamed’ and ‘the second unnamed’. The tallest one is called Troitskaya.

  10. The five stars on top of the Kremlin weigh one ton each and are made of ruby to enhance their shine.

10 Interesting Moscow Kremlin Facts 1

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10 Interesting Facts About Krasnodar

Facts About Krasnodar:

  1. Krasnodar was founded on January 12, 1794.
  2. City status was granted in 1867.
  3. On December 7, 1920, as a result of the October Revolution, Yekaterinodar was renamed Krasnodar.
  4. The original name of Krasnodar was ‘Yekaterinodar’, The name meant “Catherine’s Gift”.
  5. Catherine of Alexandria, who is considered to be the patron of the city.
  6. The population of Krasnodar is 990,203, as of 2017.
  7. Krasnodar is twinned with: Tallahassee, United States; Karlsruhe, Germany; Burgas, Bulgaria; Harbin, China & Ferrara, Italy.
  8. The main industries of Krasnodar: Agriculture and food industry, Energy sector, Fuel industry, Machine construction & Forestry and chemical industries.
  9. The coat of arms of Yekaterinodar was introduced in 1841 by the Cossack yesaul Ivan Chernik.
  10. Krasnodar is a city in Southern Russia on the Kuban River.

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Other Interesting and Informative facts that you might enjoy:

20 Interesting Facts About Yakutsk

Facts About Yakutsk:

  1. The Yakuts, also known as the Sakha people, migrated to the area during the 13th and 14th centuries from other parts of Siberia.

  2. Yakutia Airlines has its head office in the city.

  3. The annual Ysyakh summer festival takes place the last weekend in June. The traditional Yakut summer solstice festivities include a celebration of the revival and renewal of nature, fertility, and the beginning of a new year.

  4. Yakutsk is the capital of the Sakha Republic.

  5. The population of Yakutsk is 311,760, as of 2018.

  6. Yakutsk is twinned with: Changwon, South Korea; Fairbanks, Alaska, United States; Harbin, Heilongjiang, China; Murayama, Japan; Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada & Vaughan, Ontario, Canada.

  7. The main indigenous people of Yakutia – Yakuts – prefer to be called “Sakha”.

  8. Winter in Yakutsk lasts from October to May.

  9. The climate is extreme continental. In the winter it is the coldest city in the world and in summer it is very hot.

  10. The Lena River in terms of its water track is second only to the Amazon River.

  11. Lena Pillars Nature Park in Yakutsk is a UNESCO World Heritage Centre.

  12. Yakutsk is also the largest city located in continuous permafrost and one of the largest that cannot be reached by road.

  13. The lowest temperatures ever recorded on the planet outside Antarctica occurred in the basin of the Yana River to the northeast of Yakutsk.

  14. Yakutsk is the largest city in Russia, which has no railway communication with the rest of the country. 

  15. Yakutsk is the capital city of the Sakha Republic, Russia, located about 450 kilometers south of the Arctic Circle.

  16. he Russian settlement of Yakutsk was founded in 1632 as a fortress by Pyotr Beketov.

  17. A highway bridge over the Lena in the Okrug had been scheduled to be built by the year 2020.

  18. Yakutia is one of the richest regions in the world in terms of natural resources.

  19. The people of Yakutsk don’t go outdoors in winter unless it was absolutely necessary due to the harsh winter they experience.

  20. The world’s only Mammoth Museum can be found in Yakutsk. 

20 Interesting Facts About Yakutsk 3

10 Interesting Facts About Suzdal

Facts About Suzdal: 

  1. Suzdal is one of the oldest Russian towns. The town’s history dates back probably to 999 or 1024 and in 1125 Yury Dolgoruky made Suzdal the capital of the Rostov-Suzdal principality.
  2. In 1992, two of the monuments (Saviour Monastery of St Euthymius and Kremlin with Nativity of the Virgin Cathedral) were included in the UNESCO World Heritage List.
  3. Suzdal is twinned with: Rothenburg ob der Tauber, Germany; Cles, Italy; Oberlin, United States; Windham, United States; Évora, Portugal; Loches, France & Shangrao, China.
  4. In 1982 Suzdal became the first Russian town to receive “La Pomme d’Or”.
  5. Open Russian Festival of Animated Film is held in Suzdal in March, every year. 
  6. Suzdal is a historic small town in Vladimir Oblast east of Moscow Russia.
  7. The climate is temperate, continental. The average temperature in January is — 14 C, in July +17 C.
  8. The Population Suzdal is around 9,428, as of 2018.
  9. Suzdal celebrated its 990th birthday on August 9, 2014.
  10. There are no high-rises in Suzdal, all the buildings are 2-stories high or lower.

10 Interesting Facts About Suzdal 4

10 Interesting Facts About Krasnoyarsk

Facts About Krasnoyarsk:

  1. The Krasnoyarsk was founded on August 19, 1628
  2. The total area of the city, including the suburbs and the river, is 348 square kilometres.
  3. Krasnoyarsk is the third-largest city in Siberia after Novosibirsk and Omsk.
  4. Krasnoyarsk is twinned with the following cities: Heihe, China; Binzhou, China; Istaravshan, Tajikistan; Mogilev, Belarus; Sault Ste. Marie, Canada; Daqing, China; Harbin, China; Ulan Bator, Mongolia; Samarkand, Uzbekistan; Oneonta, United States; Qiqihar, China; Cremona, Italy; 
    Unterschleißheim, Germany; Changchun, China & Žilina, Slovakia.
  5. The 2019 Winter Universiade was hosted by Krasnoyarsk in 2019.
  6. The population of Krasnoyarsk is 1.007 million, as of 2012. 
  7. Krasnoyarsk is a city and the administrative center of Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia, located on the Yenisei River.
  8. The Krasnoyarsk Kray occupies nearly one-seventh of the territory of the Russian Federation. It is a part of the Siberian Federal District and is the largest region of SFD.
  9. The Yenisey River flows through the city. The Krasnoyarsk hydroelectric dam, 20km upstream, prevents the river from freezing.
  10. Krasnoyarsk was originally called Krasny Yar, meaning “Beautiful Steep Bank”.
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